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The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification considers those myeloid neoplasms which are diagnosed after prolonged exposure to chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for another malignant disease as “therapy related”. These patients may develop therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS), or MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (t-MDS/MPN).