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Bcl-2 is a pro-survival oncogene that promotes leukemogenesis by blocking programmed cell death. Therefore, agents designed to disrupt proteins that are involved in anti-apoptotic pathways are considered for MDS therapy, including Bcl-2 inhibitors like venetoclax. For other pro-apoptotic proteins, like 'BH3-only' proteins, BH3 agonists are in development.